Workplace Mentoring: Shea Reference Guide

Workplace Mentoring. Reference Guide
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While some studies and reviews of mentorship acknowledge the organizational, personal and relational factors that impact mentoring outcomes, they have largely neglected the academic environment. Similarly, although the restructuring of higher education has led to the integration of smaller institutions into large, multi-campus institutions, scant attention has been given to mentoring in the context of satellite or rural campuses.

Despite various models of mentoring being evaluated, no studies compared the gendered outcomes of different models of mentoring or the use of online mentoring. Most of the studies reviewed utilized cross-sectional, self-report designs with minimal use of validated instruments; factors which limited comparison across studies and precluded a meta-analysis. While six studies examined follow-up, outcomes ranging from 10 months to 6 years, only three studied the longer-term benefits of mentorship over four years or more.

The dearth of longitudinal and high-level empirical studies that consider gender in the context of the contemporary higher education environment, continue to limit the evidence available about specific models of mentoring and their outcomes for women. This review was limited to studies of mentoring of women in health faculty, published in English in peer-reviewed journals from to Though we undertook a comprehensive search of four databases deemed most likely to elicit mentoring studies in faculties of health, it is possible some relevant studies may have been missed.

As this was an integrative review and we sought to include all valuable informational content, we included all studies that met our inclusion criteria, and did not undertake quality ratings. The preponderance of data from academic medicine flags a bias in understanding yet highlights the priority given to mentoring as an investment in recruiting and retaining medical academics. While the lack of conceptual clarity around the notion of mentoring limited our ability to synthesize data, it yielded rich insight into new models and varied possibilities.

This integrative review has synthesized what is known about the benefits, enablers and barriers to mentoring in the context of female academics in health faculties from to , the effects of a lack of, or inadequate mentoring, and gaps in knowledge. In synthesising the evidence, this review provides a compelling case for institutions to invest in mentoring programs as a mechanism to support role transition, empower and retain new faculty and build female mentoring capacity.

These results provide evidence that the provision of effective mentoring for female health academics is contingent on the organizational environment, specifically, workplace structures and relationships, and represents a long-term investment that can benefit academics and their mentors.

The urgent need to address these issues necessitate that new strategies be adopted to capture the enablers and circumvent the personal, relational and organizational impediments to mentoring. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract This integrative literature review synthesizes the primary research evidence on mentoring female health academics published from to , to identify the benefits, enablers and barriers to mentoring women.

Introduction Academic mentorship features prominently in orientation, support of new faculty transitioning to the academic role, faculty development, career advancement, job satisfaction and retention [ 1 — 4 ]. Methods Review process We adopted an integrative review process based on the five-stage process proposed by Whittemore and Knafl [ 30 ]: developing the review question, searching the literature, data collection, discussion of results and presentation of integrated findings. Review questions Our research questions were: What are the benefits, barriers and enablers of mentoring female health academics, the consequences of a lack of, or inadequate mentoring, and the gaps in knowledge about mentoring women?

Inclusion and exclusion criteria Our search criteria incorporated peer-reviewed primary research on the mentorship of female health academics published in English from to July Data collection The database search generated records. Download: PPT. Data extraction and synthesis A summary table was generated synthesizing the data from included studies. Results Study characteristics Analysis of the study characteristics presented in Table 1 revealed that 21 of the 27 articles reviewed originated from the USA, three from Canada, two from the United Kingdom and one from Australia.

Key themes The key themes reflect the review aims; namely, the benefits, barriers, enablers and outcomes of lack of, or inadequate mentoring for women. Fig 2. Concept matrix mapping mentoring themes to source articles.

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Benefits of mentoring Career development. Personal development. Academic craftsmanship. Psychosocial support.

Enablers of mentoring Mentor availability. Mentor expertise. Supportive relationship.

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Workplace Mentoring: Shea Reference Guide - Kindle edition by Andrew Jones. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Developed for supervisors or colleagues who are responsible for mentoring in the workplace. Demonstrates the processes involved with developing, facilitating, .

Responsiveness to shifting needs. Barriers to mentoring Personal and relational dynamics. Organizational factors. Consequences of a lack of or inadequate mentorship Eleven of the 27 studies reviewed identified the consequences of a lack of, or inadequate mentoring to be decreased job satisfaction, limited career development and reduced academic productivity.

Decreased job satisfaction. Limited career development. Reduced academic productivity. Gender issues in mentoring More than half of the articles reviewed highlighted specific gender issues. Discussion This review has synthesized the research evidence about mentorship generated in the aftermath of corporatist changes in higher education, with the specific intent to identify the benefits, enablers and barriers to female health academics accessing suitable mentorship, the consequences of the lack of, or inadequate mentorship, and gaps in knowledge.

Consequences of inadequate mentoring This review found the consequences of inadequate mentoring to be isolation, disempowerment, job dissatisfaction, stress and limited career development; factors conducive to burnout and attrition [ 3 , 11 , 69 ]. Gaps in the literature Despite the need to address gender inequities and career advancement, much of the literature on mentoring in the health sciences is generalised, the level of evidence weak and lacking in gender analysis.

Limitations and strength of evidence This review was limited to studies of mentoring of women in health faculty, published in English in peer-reviewed journals from to Conclusion This integrative review has synthesized what is known about the benefits, enablers and barriers to mentoring in the context of female academics in health faculties from to , the effects of a lack of, or inadequate mentoring, and gaps in knowledge.

Supporting information. S1 Table. Sample search strategy. References 1. Show me the money! An empirical analysis of mentoring outcomes for women in academia. View Article Google Scholar 2. Mentoring programs for physicians in academic medicine: A systematic review.

7 Steps to Creating a Mentoring Program

Academic Medicine. Best practices in academic mentoring: A model for excellence. View Article Google Scholar 4. A systematic review of qualitative research on the meaning and characteristics of mentoring in Academic Medicine. Journal of General Internal Medicine. Academic staff workloads and job satisfaction: Expectations and values in academe. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management.

View Article Google Scholar 6. Neumann R and Guthrie J. The corporatization of research in Australian higher education. Critical Perspectives on Accounting. View Article Google Scholar 7. Pick D. Higher Education Quarterly. View Article Google Scholar 8. Guthrie J and Neumann R.

Economic and non-financial performance indicators in universities: the establishment of a performance-driven system for Australian higher education. Public Management Review. View Article Google Scholar 9. Kimber M. The tenured'core'and the tenuous' periphery': the casualisation of academic work in Australian universities. View Article Google Scholar Winter R and Sarros J.

The academic work environment in Australian universities: a motivating place to work? Higher Education Research and Development. What goes around comes around: Improving faculty retention through more effective mentoring. Journal of Professional Nursing.

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The global nursing faculty shortage: Status and solutions for change. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. Expert clinician to clinical teacher: Developing a faculty academy and mentoring initiative.

Nurse Education in Practice. Baker M. Women graduates and the workplace: continuing challenges for academic women.

References

Studies in Higher Education. A mentoring needs assessment: Validating mentorship in nursing education. Department of Health. Health Workforce Data. Canberra: Australian Governement, Commonwealth of Australia; Career benefits associated with mentoring for proteges: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. Measuring the effectiveness of faculty mentoring relationships. E-mentoring: Using computer mediated communication to enhance the mentoring process.

Innovative Higher Education. Thorpe K and Kalischuk RG. A collegial mentoring model for nurse educators.

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